Some of the common terms relating to bladder cancer
The section of the body that contains the pancreas, liver, stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and other organs.
Cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs and that have gland-like (secretory) properties.
Additional cancer treatment given after the primary treatment with aim of lowering the risk of the cancer coming back. Adjuvant therapy may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, or biological therapy.
A loss of feeling or awareness. A local anaesthetic gives loss of feeling in a specific part of the body. A general anaesthetic will make the person go to sleep.
A substance that inhibits or destroys micro-organisms, used to treat bacterial infections.
Bacteria are single-cell microorganisms. A large group, some cause infections and disease in humans and animals.
Not cancerous, the tumour has not invaded tissue nearby or spread to other parts of the body.
An immunotherapy drug which is effective for some non-muscle invasive cancers. It is given directly as a solution into the bladder (intravesical) by using a catheter. The solution contains live Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) bacteria. These bacteria activate the immune system.
Removal of a sample of tissues for examination under a microscope, used in cancer diagnosis.
The organ of the body that stores urine before it is passed from the body.
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that starts in cells that make up the inner lining of the bladder). Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). The cells that form squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma develop in the inner lining of the bladder as a result of chronic irritation and inflammation.
Tests done on blood samples. These might be needed at different stages in treatment and are often done within the clinic.
Blue Light Cystoscopy
A cystoscopy where a special blue light is used which makes tumours fluoresce and show up more clearly. Also called PDD - photodynamic diagnosis.